What is corruption? Explain the Causes and List out the Government Measures to curb the Corruption.

Corruption

Corruption refers to the act of misuse and abuse of power especially by those in the government for personal gains either pecuniary or a favour.

Reason for corruption in India:

Political:

  • Use of black money in elections
  • Criminalization of politics
  • Crony capitalism

Economic

  • High share of informal sector
  • Ease of doing business
  • High inequalities

Administrative

  • Criminalization of politics and politicization of bureaucracy
  • Colonial bureaucracy:
  • Failed reforms
  • Low wages

Social and Ethical

  • Changes in lifestyle
  • Social discrimination
  • Failure of education system

Legal Steps

Prevention of corruption Act 1988

  • Seeks to create a balance between need to bring corrupt to the books and protect honest officers. Prosecution of an officer requires sanction from the government

Benami property Act 1988

  • Recent amendments have widened the definition of the benami property and allow the government to confiscate such properties without any hassles of court approvals

Central Vigilance commission Act 2003

  • Gives statutory status to CVC. Central Vigilance Commissioner shall be appointed by President on recommendation of a Committee consisting of the PM, MHA and LoP in LS
  • Covers AIS officers, Gazetted officers of center, senior members of the PSB banks etc.
  • Commission, while conducting the inquiry has all the powers of a Civil Court

Right to Information Act 2005

Makes disclosure of information a legal right of the public to promote transparency

Whistleblower protection Act 2014

  • More than 60 RTI activists have been murdered and many more assaulted due to lack of protection
  • WPA accords special protection to the people who disclose the acts of wrongdoing in the government. Provides anonymity and protection from prosecution under acts such as Official secret act 1923

Lokpal and Lokayukta Act 2013

  • Appoints an independent authority Lokpal at center and Lokayukta at states to probe into the complaints of wrongdoing by the public servants
  • Lokpal will be appointed by committee consisting of PM, LoP, CJI, Speaker and an eminent jurist

Administrative reforms

E-governance initiatives

  • e-gov apart from advancing the good governance objectives of accountability and transparency also seeks to reduce the manual interface between state and citizen thus preventing the incidences of bribery

Citizen Charters and Public Service delivery and Grievance Redress Acts in states

Economic Reforms

Liberalization and Privatization

GST

Demonetisation

Electoral Reforms

Cash donations

  • Recent amendments have reduced the limit on the cash donation to 2000 from the earlier 20000, thus restricting the inflow of anonymous black money into the funds of political parties

Judicial Interventions

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