Explain detail in Employment generation Programmes in India.

Aatmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY)

  • Aatmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY) has been launched in 2020 to incentivize employers for creation of new employment along with social security benefits and restoration of employment.
  • This scheme being implemented through EPFO seeks to reduce the financial burden of the employers and encourages them to hire more workers.
  • Under ABRY, Government of India is providing for a period of two years, both the employees’ share (12% of wages) and employers share’ (12% of wages) of contribution or only employees’ share of contribution depending on employment strength of the EPFO registered establishments, for new employees whose monthly wage is less than Rs. 15,000/- per month.

Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY)

  • Under Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY), Government of India has contributed both 12% employer’s share and 12% employee’s share under Employees Provident Fund (EPF), totaling 24% of the wage for the wage month from March to August, 2020 for the establishments having upto 100 employees with 90% of such employees earning less than Rs. 15000/-.
  • This has helped in providing employment in EPFO registered establishments during post Covid period.
  • Statutory PF contribution of both employer and employee was reduced to 10% each from existing 12% each for all establishments covered by EPFO for three months i.e. May to July 2020.

PM- SVANidhi Scheme

  • PM SVANidhi was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, on June 01, 2020.
  • Its objective is to provide affordable Working Capital loan to street vendors to resume their livelihoods that have been adversely affected due to Covid-19 lockdown.
  • Under the Scheme, the vendors can avail a working capital loan of up to Rs. 10,000, which is repayable in monthly instalments in the tenure of one year.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

  • It was started in 10th five-year plan in 2005. It works under Ministry of Ministry of Rural Development.
  • Funding: Centrally Sponsored with the pattern 90:10.
  • Providing provides a legal guarantee of at least 100 days of unskilled manual work in rural areas.
  • Atleast 1/3rd beneficiaries shall be women.
  • Projects will be recommended by Gram Sabha (does Social audit too) and approved by the Zilla panchayat.
  • Atleast 50% works will be allotted to Gram Panchayats for execution. Permissible works predominantly include water and soil conservation, afforestation and land development works.
  • 60:40 wage and material ratio has to be maintained. No contractors and machinery is allowed.
  • Center bears 100% wage cost of unskilled manual labour and 75% of material cost including wages.
  • Grievance redressal mechanisms at State and District level.
  • Rights based approach. Strengthening Panchayati Raj Institutions is an objective.
  • Integration with other schemes like PMGSY, Housing for All etc. DBT for the wages.

National Urban Livelihood Mission (NULM), 2013

  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.(MoHUA) has been implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) since 1997 which has been restructured as DAY – National Urban Livelihoods Mission since 2013.
  • To reduce poverty, gain self-employment and skilled wage employment, build strong grassroots level institutions.
  • The mission would aim at providing shelter equipped with essential services to the urban homeless.
  • It would also address issues of urban street vendors by access to suitable spaces, institutional credit, social security etc.
  • To established strong right based linkages with other programmes and for PDS, ICDS, sanitation, financial inclusion etc.

Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Program (PMEGP)

  • It is a credit linked subsidy programme by merging 2 schemes namely PM Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) and Rural Employment Generation Program (REGP) for generation of employment opportunities through establishing of micro enterprises in both rural and urban areas.
  • It is a Central Sector Scheme administered by MoMSME.

Implementation

  • At National level: by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
  • At State Level: by State KVIC Directorates, State Khadi and Village Ind ustries Boards (KVIBs) and District Industries Centres (DICs) and banks.

Objectives

  • Generate continuous and sustainable employment opportunities in Rural and Urban areas especially to artisans through setting up micro enterprises.
  • To facilitate participation of financial institutions for higher credit flow to micro sector.

PM Mudra Yojana, 2015

  • Launched in 2015 for providing loans upto 10 lakhs to non corporate, non farm small/ micro enterprises.
  • To “fund the unfunded” by bringing such enterprises to the formal financial system and extending affordable credit to them.
  • Under PMMY, all banks viz. Public Sector Banks, Private sector Banks, RRBs, State Cooperative Banks, Urban Cooperative Banks, Foreign Banks and NBFCs/MFIs.
  • Loans offered are Shishu (upto 50000); Kishor (50000 to 5 lakhs) and Tarun (5 lakhs to 10 lakhs). There is no subsidy for this loan.
  • Sectors like Land Transport, Community, Social and Personal service activities; Food products; Textile products are included.

Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY)

  • PMRPY Scheme aims to incentivise employers registered with EPFO for job creation by the Govt paying the full 12% employers’ contribution to EPF & EPS
  • It is implemented by Ministry of Labour & Employment and is operational since 2016.

Eligibility

  • Establishments should have a Labour Identification Network (LIN) allotted to them under Shram Suvidha Portal.
  • PMRPY is for new employees earning wage < 15000 per month.
  • Duration: The scheme was in operation for 3 years i.e. till 2019-20.
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