Write a short note on Features of Periodic table Groups

Features of Groups

  • The vertical columns in the periodic table starting from top to bottom are called groups. There are 18 groups in the periodic table.
  • Based on the common characteristics of elements in each group, they can be grouped as various families.
Group Number Family
1 Alkali Metals
2 Alkaline earth metals
3 to 12 Transition metals
13 Boron Family
14 Carbon Family
15 Nitrogen Family
16 Oxygen Family (or) Chalcogen family
17 Halogens
18 Noble gases
  • The Lanthanides and Actinides, which form part of Group 3 are called inner transition elements.
  • Except ‘Group 18’, all the elements present in each group have the same number of electrons in their valence shell and thus have the same valency.
  • For example, all the elements of group 1 have one electron in their valence shells (1s¹). So, the valency of all the alkali metals is ‘1’
  • As the elements present in a group have identical valence shell electronic configurations, they possess similar chemical properties.
  • The physical properties of the elements in a group such as melting point, boiling point and density vary gradually.
  • The atoms of the ‘Group 18’ elements have stable electronic configuration in their valence shells and hence they are unreactive.

 

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